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Education system in France EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES IN FRANCE
Before the 1789 revolution, the clergy, the nobles and the people
in France, consisting of three classes Revolution ‘, together with
the prevailing line of thinking curve shows, for the first time
been recognized as a human right. Accordingly, the curve shows an
individual be able to perform the functions of social life, the
basic condition for their selves kullanabilmelerinin
yönetebilmelerinin and rights. Therefore, dated 24 July 1793 of the
Constitution 22 Article duty of the state, of course, that everyone
has the right of citizens to education and training to support the
culture of society in general is specified as the earth according
to their ability to organize.
Curves so that is owed to France as a service to the public and the
raising of the state evaluated and taken as a right under the state
guarantee. Secularism, which is based on respect for the principle
of equality and liberty, the state, people are geographically,
culturally and socially, regardless of their properties in France,
has the right to life, the right to education of young people and
children to benefit from the guarantees.
Educational purposes in France, in 1989, with the vibrant education
given in the following format. It aims to:
1 Each student plans to perform on their own to ensure
2 The required level of training to prepare all young people,
3 that will allow students to continue their higher education to
provide equal opportunities to obtain a diploma,
4 New members of “Europeanness” and cultivate the idea of
Expected for the next five years, the curve shows the
1 Halving the number of students leaving school won the required
2 College education of 65% enrollment target capture,
3 Parents and students are not accepted by at least halving of the
number of courses identified as guidance.
They are based on the light levels of the education system in
France aims curve shows A. Main Objectives of the School
1 Start synchronizing educational opportunities, enabling the
growth rate of each individual abilities,
2 Gelişimim events and provide creative personality,
3 Acquire the skills they need in their relations with other
4 Agreement of their own bodies to provide notice,
5 the first semester students are required their development of
mental, psychomotor and emotional competencies to provide
6 Ensure that a child’s mental and social gelişimim,
7 Ensure that children use their language,
8 Bring your family and primary education is to prepare the future
it wrong eliminating educational behavior.
B. Objectives of the Regulation of Primary Education Primary
Education dated 18 January 1887
1 Basic math and literacy skills,
2 Their bodies in the world, beings, aware of the space and
time-related entities to provide
3 Ensure that learning a foreign language in order to understand
4 Children’s physical, mental, and moral values, socialization ‘to
C. Aims of secondary education 3.Ağustos Decree dated 1963
1 Enough to prevent the social cultural educational opportunities
for all children by eliminating kazandmnak,
2 General culture and provide basic information,
3 Provide a good fit to manage the individual skills,
4 Each student can choose the appropriate training for its various
selection options, to give
5 In accordance with national requirements to provide the widest
range of opportunities for transition to the upper levels,
D. Aims of Higher Education
choice of career and vocational guidance to students with the
necessary information and training to enable the balancing and
complementary social, cultural and sports activities related to
different areas in order to guide students and provide
1 Information during the preparation of students for effective
communication skills to be developed, the idea of research to
develop and train people,
2 By delivering the highest level of culture and research, culture
and the opportunity of research, ability and capacity to make the
3 Democratic development in accordance with the technical and
industrial revolutions, each region will contribute to the economic
and social development of each area of the train staff,
4 Faculty members and researchers to provide the necessary
facilities in order to make teaching and research,
5 National education needed to train teachers,
6 Those who could not continue their education, promotion and
training opportunities in life by creating a possibility to change
professions to provide
7 The use of new communication and information dissemination tools
to ensure that all categories of information fed in a
8 Partially or fully engaged in teaching French co-operation with
universities to develop and establish new ties with universities in
the European Union member states. EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN
Education is a basic right for every human being for the first time
the principle of the French Revolution ‘was accepted in the.
According to the theoreticians of the revolution, the people in the
social life of their functions
The individuals were considered to be due to a common teaching is
that they can. Revolutionaries, and the rights of people to use
their own selves to handle the situation believed that they could
spread education. The thought of the French Republic’s constitution
dated 24 July 1793 22 Article embodied in the following terms:
“Education is a natural need of everyone. General culture of
society to support all power according to his ability and success
in teaching the duty of citizens” sense of institutional
secularization of education in the first (1850) in France
France has been the participation of the education system of my
people in the process of the creation of programs. Reform programs
in primary and secondary education in 1902 replaced a matter of
fact giving rise to thoughts of the people by parliament in 1898 to
ensure the formation of a questionnaire designed to take.
The education system is based on a centralized structure. The
Ministry of Education in charge of education one of the highest ..
‘ is available. All study personnel costs are paid by the state.
Education programs and regulations are mainly regulated by the
The Ministry of Education from the competent authority after the
“Council for Higher Education” is. This organization of the Turkish
education system “Board of Education” has a function equivalent to.
The Council, appointed for a term of four years each, and is
composed of members elected from the 56. 27 members of the Council
for the universities, secondary schools and primary schools in 10
selects six members. The Council meets twice a year. Minister of
Education, exams, curricula, teaching methods, discipline,
administrative regulations and the council consults on issues
related to the audit of special schools.
Ministry or any other institutions that are authorized at the level
of the “General Inspection Committee” is. Investigators are
involved in this committee. Investigators in Paris, the link
between the ministry and schools all across the country, providing
a high-level group of officials. Schools to visit, have a duty to
give information to the minister.
Of the French education system at the local level is divided into
twenty-five academy. Each zone is a university (academic) occurs
around. Therefore, the rector of the university’s department-level
manager who is responsible to the department for education is the
most competent person. President, by the ministry, with the
approval of the President of the university deans assigned. The
Rector makes the appointment of the candidates will be assigned to
administrative duties in the examination shall appoint members of
the Commission, shall supervise the tests and his cabinet, which
serves as the make of the academic council shall be the chairman.
Rector few area (department), including the supervisor of secondary
schools within the confines of academia. Other unit-level training
in the Academy on the question of “Academic Council” is. Academic
Council, on a proposal from the minister appointed by the president
and is usually composed of experts in academia, inspectors,
representatives of private schools and institutions of higher and
secondary education, in academia, “departınent” and “commune”
composed of representatives of the elected assemblies. The Council
advises the rector of usually secondary. That make up the unit
after the Academy of the Ministry of the authority nor the
authority of what is its own. Only the Ministry of Education uses
issued by the authority.
In France, local government units, “department” s occurs.
Department ‘s, assignment from Paris managed by the Governor.
Governor department at the head of the primary organization.
Appoints and supervises some of the scholarships given to teachers.
Department ‘s put the national taxes in addition to the education
tax. This is derived from taxes all kinds of expenses, including
resources and training provided almost half of the remaining
the government paid half of the allocations. Department, teachers,
schools, buildings, and is responsible for maintaining onanmını.
Academy inspector is obliged to provide an office, primary school
inspectors can be found in the allocation of additional charge of
the local schools in order to provide awards and scholarships can
Department’s the governor’s presidency of the Council of Education
Department are carried out. And to some extent created elected
council advises the governor controls it. This is an academy
inspector as a vice president of the council, four members elected
by the general assembly department, primary school teachers who
were chosen by their colleagues in the region, male and female
principals of teacher training colleges, the minister appointed by
the elected representatives of the two elementary schools is called
the inspector and is the current special. The Council, the number
and location of schools, number of teachers in schools, and private
schools are required to make recommendations on issues such as the
opening. Members of the Council, to examine issues related to
health and school buildings can visit the schools.
In addition, the number of the local level there are 38,000 units
called the Commune. Commune ‘s Commune council selected by the
media and the mayor are held accountable to the governor and the
national government. The exact number of the mayor on education
within the limits of the powers and responsibilities of the Commune
there. New school buildings may propose, and approve the opening of
Check and take measures to increase student continuation schools.
Some of the money spent on vocational training at the local level
to be paid by commercial firms. Greater local responsibility for
Each Commune in itself is divided into cantons, and the media are
an inspector. Investigators are responsible for the coordination of
the primary education they provide to their respective cantons. In
addition, with the rector responsible for ensuring co-ordination
between local schools. School teachers selected from the manager,
is the ministry responsible for the implementation and regulations.
Training costs of central government, the Department and the
Commune ‘s covered by the. The central government primary and
secondary schools and teacher salaries of all teachers working in
schools gives the buildings meet the maintenance costs and poor
Commune ‘s The makes special assistance. These are the usual
expenditures. When it comes to extraordinary expenditure, the
central government Department ‘s, and the Commune’ s to make school
does the interest on the money borrowed. Department ‘s teachers for
schools Commune’ s plot for primary schools, and finds the
building. The central government Department deems necessary
‘municipalities and Commune’ s The make additional payments. FORMAL
Formal education system in France Condorcef foundations were laid
in 1971 with the model developed. Condorcef in the model, based on
the ages of nine and thirteen located between a primary school for
every 400 people, a secondary school for every 4,000 people in each
province was included in the opening of an institute. In this
model, high schools, and dealt with all the sciences, mathematics,
ethics, nature, literature, art and science missions in the areas
of continuing research were presented.
In 1833, education was made compulsory up to age 11. In 1881
enacted a law were obliged to education for everyone between the
ages of 6-13. Then in 1959 the age of compulsory education has been
extended until the age of 16. In 1981, it could not be applied is
extended compulsory education up to age 18. Compulsory education
between the ages of 6-11 primary school, secondary school between
the ages of 11-16 in the first circuit section are the same two
periods. Student performance is assessed through the grades given
in note 10 0-20 ‘roll.
Education plans are set out in the 1960s, the quantitative results
obtained from the direction of economic development has led to
significant improvements. Enrollment ratio in secondary education
in 1966 38.4%, in 1980 49%, and 99% in recent years has increased
to. 1973 since the academic year, a week’s holiday at Christmas. On
March and July two-week vacation in a vacation longer divided into
three periods to occur. The program prepared by the Ministry of
Education regulations are identified. Teachers, even though they
are free to use any methods they wish, by inspectors of the
Ministry of Education issued a compliance when inspected
genelgelerdeki principles (Erdoğan, 1995). PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
In France in 1771 for the first time okulöcesi educational
institutions, “Pastor schools as” the Vosges on at. Currently the
first of six children under the age of 100 years ago in Paris,
which was founded “Ecole maternelle” from drying attend. The
population in 2000 in excess of preschool institutions has to open
all the residential units. If the population is less than that due
to pre-school education in primary schools I served arak.
Maintenance and expenses met by the municipalities of preschool
education institutions, teacher charges provided by the state.
Children in preschool institutions, continuing to age 5
when they read, write, and draw upon the account. Some are even
foreign language courses in preschool education. Continues to
students ages 5-6 class provides a transition between kindergarten
and primary school.
In France, preschool education, social and mental development of
the child! providing equal educational opportunities available to
them that the situation, so that institutions are regarded as equal
opportunities in education. For this reason, pre-school enrollment
rate is quite high level. 3-4 year old children in the 1970s, 80%,
5-year-olds to 95%
I continued school. 2-year-olds in 20% of the initial pre-school
As of 1992, school enrollment rate was 98% in the age group of six.
1980/81 according to the 3-6 year-olds, 97.3% percent, 5-year-olds,
100% third, 90% of children 3 years of age, and children 2 years of
age 36% PERCENT “Ecole maternelle” to appear to be registered.
Pre-school level, these rates are the highest values of other
European countries. France also underlie the development of
pre-school institutions in the 1900s, industrialization is another
reason to join the women as a result of the social and economic
life in the care of children need arise. Home schools, especially
after 1960, to France, and those who migrated to colonial countries
and the least developed countries, workers’ children to learn the
French language and French culture has been given more importance
in terms of providing kaynaşabilmelerini (Erdoğan, 1995).
In France for 10 years, and the duration of compulsory education
covers the period between the ages of 6-16. According to the law of
compulsory education between the ages of 6-11, primary education,
secondary education between the ages of 11 to 16 l. circuit to be
divided into two periods.
France, the primary targets are determined as follows:
1 Information and cultural transmission: the primary goal of the
school to transfer knowledge and culture from generation to
2 Prepare for professional life: should cooperate with the school
environment. To prepare students to make its working life and
develop their creativity. Organic link between the school and
3 cultivate a good citizen: teach next school not only human
rights, these rights also has to teach you how to use. And making
this information available to give citizenship to train good
citizens is one of the most important goals of education.
4 To be fair: the school must eliminate inequalities. Equal to the
level of an individual to take advantage of educational
opportunities are very important.
In France, the first step of primary education is compulsory and
free of charge in public schools. Elementary principles and in
accordance with guidelines established by the Ministry of Education
carried out. The most important function of education, taking into
account the regional and local characteristics of moral and civic
education is to provide children with the family.
In France, primary schools established and managed by the
municipalities. Bakanlığı’nındır overall responsibility for the
state of Education. Determine the overall objectives of the
Ministry of education, training programs to prepare teachers of the
school grows and undertakes general expenses. Elementary schools by
eliminating the centralized structures since 1983, has been
transferred to local governments. Number of students in multigrade
teaching in small residential areas are not enough.
Primary school children between the ages of 6-11 that they continue
to play in their own divided into three. 1 Preparation period: the
period of a one-year preparatory class that performs call in 6-7
age group children involved-
2 Basic Learning Period: The period covers the second and third
classes, teaching children between the ages of 7-9 sees.
3 Development period: the period covering the fourth and fifth
classes continues to children aged 9-ll.
In France, a total of 27 hours of instruction in primary education
are half a day a week 9. Due to the decline in the rate of
population growth in the number of students in primary education is
France, the primary l. Students are assessed by the class teacher
in primary school when the principal as well as the owner of the
board of directors. School board, elected representatives of
parents and teachers and local education organization composed of
representatives of management and school inspectors. This committee
is responsible for managing the school.
Students who have completed five years of primary education,
secondary step of the full-time faculty are more than 5 years,
primary school teachers who work with 4-year bachelor’s degree and
the teaching certificate must have
(Gürkan and Gokce, 1999).
In France, primary schools will be opened by the municipalities,
primary l-year preparation period covered by the age of 6-7, 7-9 2
long and 2 years of age covered by the initial period covered by
the medium-term, including age 9-11 is divided into three stages,
primary January 18, 1887 Since physical training, mental training
and moral education is based on education, including a triple.
Dated January 2, 1970 based on the three main objectives of primary
education has been recognized as the primary directive. Average of
the first in a class of French educational institutions
There are 35 students.
There are generally three types of primary:
1 Normal primary schools
Within the boundaries of the municipality as a dependent of the
number of children of primary school age in the schools opened by
the municipalities. Each municipality, depending on the population
of the residential area, at least one must be open and in terms of
the normal primary responsibility.
2 Special primary schools for girls and boys
These schools, more than 500 regions of the true population, the
decision of the board of primary education by the municipalities of
the region optionally opens.
3 The small village primary schools Where at least 15 children of
school age and at least three kilometers away from the other
regions of the settlements, the city council and the district
primary school council’s decision on the report of the governor’s
proposal and the ministry of the academic inspector opened a
one-class and one-teacher schools. Village school where one teacher
was 10 thousand in 1979 (Erdoğan, 1995). SECONDARY France
France in the educational system of secondary education, the need
to form a part of compulsory education, as well as preparing
students for university and profession has a lot of important
Secondary education system, while preserving the tradition of some
applications, especially in the last 25 years to respond to the new
requirements of society in line with changes in the re-arranged.
Secondary, primary and secondary level in two stages.
elementary school educations “Students who have completed their
education, secondary education continue from the first step. they
are participating in this period between the ages of 11-15, and
take four years of college education (college) is carried out in
schools called. these schools established by the law of 11 July
Colleges, the number of students in each class at least 16 to 30
respectively. Applications in recent years, according to the
average number of students in classes of 25. Two years of a
four-year college education consists of two phases. Classes from
top to bottom, “the sixth, fifth, fourth and third classes” was
organized in the form. The fifth and sixth classes (primary school
classes in the sixth and seventh), covering the first two years of
the term “observation period”
(Cycie commun), the fourth to the third-grade level (elementary
school after the eighth and ninth classes) in the second phase the
“orientation” (cycie orientation) is referred to as a period.
School students is intended to ensure the harmonization of the
observation period. Routing in the period of compulsory and
elective courses according to their ability to be followed through
the training program preparing students is the trend.
All students in both semesters in college classes 24 hours per week
will see the common. The period of observation, French, mathematics
and foreign language courses per week for 3 hours (one hour for
each course) made the course extra help. Also at the school in the
center of documentation and information processing, organizing
various activities to support basic research.
French, mathematics and foreign language courses in addition to the
assistance, guidance as a regular part of the training program is
perpetuated in the period. During this period, next to the required
courses, elective courses are also required (from the Latin, Greek,
the second Foreign Language and Technology) takes place. Students
in the three hours per week has the freedom to choose one of these
courses. Also, the first language, for an additional period of two
hours a week in order to practice separated. In addition, the eager
students for courses for fine arts such as music and pictures
(chorus, workshops, etc.). Put in additional work hours. Colleges
training program starting in 1985, previously taught in the
“Technical and Crafts” class instead of “Technology” course, and
all the schools computers are put in place.
Orientation sessions, and their adaptation to school improvement,
as well as functions such as preparing students to transition the
higher schools, as there is no need in the system of colleges,
vocational schools is an important part as well. Therefore, in this
period, classes, vocational training, apprenticeship training or
preparatory classes (classes pre ‘professionnelles de niveau = CPPN
/ classes preparatorres a Papprentissage = CPA) is also called, in
order to meet the increasing demand from the business community,
students transition to vocational training In order to facilitate
vocational high school preparatory classes gradually transformed
into these classes.
Completed the fifth grade and vocational training colleges in the
age group of 14-16 students who wish to pursue, or vocational
preparation course (CPPN) preparation course or apprenticeship
training program (CAP) will continue.
The aim of preparing students from vocational education to age 14
to help their career choices. For this course, you will be informed
about the various professions and skills students! provided to them
to try a variety of application possibilities.
In preparation for apprenticeship training course, intended for
children aged 14 to 15 who have chosen a profession. This course is
part of in school, the workplace and partly provided the student
will begin to learn the profession after school.
Students who finish their educations by a four-year college and 15
years of age, to complete their compulsory education. The second
stage of secondary education, or for general education in a high
school, a vocational school or training full-time for at least one
year must see.
Type of training will continue after college student, Class
Teachers Council and the Class Council decides.
Classroom Teachers’ Council of the course to a class consisting of
teachers, to prepare a report for each student individually to make
recommendations on its future course training program meets once a
Class teachers for each student containing the views and
suggestions of the report prepared by the Board examination, the
student’s future education and provide suggestions for resolving
issues such as recent form at the end of the school year, chaired
by the school principal or deputy of the Assembly class covered by
the task. Class Council, the representative of both parents and the
teachers about their classes, two student representatives,
educational consultant, career counselor, school nurse and social
counselor and consists of a doctor. The first and basic education
diploma students 14 years of age who (primaires certifieat d’etudes
et elementaires = CEPE) pickup examination. Since 1981, colleges,
degree of maturity before they moderate (brevet d’études du primary
cycie = BEPC) instead of the longer basic education diploma (brevet
des collages) give. This diploma is the third graduating class.
Official government schools and students attending schools in the
state officially recognized, according to their years of success
given the diploma. Self-training, or taking private lessons in
private schools guys, this is the exam to get a diploma to
Secondary Secondary Level
Secondary schools, colleges after the first step, the second step
of forming high schools (Lycee), students ‘]’ in general higher
education prepares students in two different areas. One of them, in
short, “high school” called and students of higher branches of
general education and technical training of maturity
(Baccalaureate) degree prepares general and technical high school
(Lycee d’enseignement general et teknologique), respectively. The
other students and the profession, as well as the degree of
maturity of vocational education preparing for higher education
vocational school (Lycee professonnel), respectively.
Colleges in activities related to the reorganization is complete,
the second step of the reorganization of secondary education in
1981 and started to work.
The aim of the new regulation is primarily initiated general
education schools, high schools and multi-stage solid
(hierarchical) based on a classification for the type of diploma
intended to reduce disparities and to eliminate the necessity of
making an early selection. To this end, formerly “entry class”
(seconde) is known as the tenth class public courses compulsory for
all the students to the “orientation class” (seconde de
deterrnination) transformed to. Targeted diploma students,
depending on the differentiation of courses 11 and 12 grades (to
premiere ten-Ninole) is.
General and technical secondary schools, the curriculum has been
practiced since the 1981-1982 academic year, according to the
orientation class with some common courses compulsory elective
courses are required. The first class of high school (10th grade =
seconde) common courses required of all students in the program
receive training. In my field of technology education and general
education elective courses is determined by the. Elective courses
can be increased according to the school. For instance, a third
foreign language, technical workshops and so on. such. Art
education or qualified technician training programs specifically
for students who choose to apply my studies. Beginning in 1986, the
content of courses in the field of technology, to increase the
attractiveness of these courses to keep up with developments in
technology and renewed.
My area of elective courses the students, according to the type
of diploma determine target. For example, a diploma of maturity! a
student who wants to get technical field, select the first field
course, a student who chooses the second course for the area, open
to the general area of education and technology. 11 For both
groups, the exact routing and 12 certain grades and student
selection will be! This would have made the grades.
In the field of technical education and general education, as well
as vocational training courses takes place. Students attending this
program maturity technical education diploma (technician diploma)
are. Technical education, general education courses with the new
arrangement made in 1985 increased in line with technological
advances in education and vocational training courses were
On the other hand, vocational schools, the Education Act of 11 July
1975, the earlier technical education colleges (d collages
“enseignement technique) vocational training schools (Lycee d
‘enseignemen professionnel) transformation of said establishment.
2-3 years of vocational education and training programs these
institutions, then, in 1985, as a result of the new regulation in
the education system “vocational school” (Lycee Professionnel),
vocational schools, colleges from the first stage of secondary
period (4th and 3rd grades) and 2-year basic vocational training
technology to the students from classes, as well as a 2-year degree
in vocational education prepares them by maturity vocational
Students at vocational schools are:
1 After two years of study in college, who finished fifth grade and
are at least 14 years old vocational training preparation courses
(CPPN) preparatory courses for continuing education or
apprenticeship training after the end of the 2-3 year degree in a
specialty occupation (certificatd ‘aptitude professioneIle = CAP)
students who wish to take,
2 Continue and finish the third grade to college for four years,
and after a 2-year vocational training school of art of diplomacy
(brevet d’études professionnelles = IEP) students who wish to take.
Vocational high schools, two-year programs leading to a degree of
professional maturity, 32 to 36 hours of classes per week are made.
16 to 18 hours of general education courses for this, the technical
to the occupational area is divided into 16 to 18 hours. In
addition, students from 16 to 20 weeks each year at work practice
(practical) they do.
In vocational schools vocational training areas, determined
according to regional requirements. Previously, the various
technical areas of the business tasks of maintenance and commercial
area in the field of vocational training given to five faces, each
year after 1985, opened a new vocational training areas.
From vocational high school diplomas (DMP to the BEP) allows direct
access to occupations that require expertise. However, sometimes
there are differences between the two diplomas. For example, BEP,
industry, commerce, management and social areas give the necessary
professional skills and knowledge generally DIAMETER by the IEP,
the profession is superior in terms of quality and all the
knowledge and skills that are required for a particular career win.
Successful students in both groups, the technical part of the
second year of high school, and here are taken, with respect to the
technical field prepared for higher education matriculation
In France only a baccalaureate college and higher (Baccalaureate)
exams that are high school graduates (Sözer, 1997). HIGHER
EDUCATION IN FRANCE
Center of the French higher education system is traditionally based
on the principles and freedom. Given to the preparation of programs
and degrees in higher education shall be exercised in a few
countries. France is also one of those countries. Collects a number
of different institutions of higher education in their structure.
Universities, colleges and other educational institutions a large,
tertiary forms. Theoretical teaching the majority of students are
accepted at universities and graduates in terms of employment
opportunities are not guaranteed. If the student is considered a
limited number of colleges, high levels of qualified staff they
grow the national economy.
According to the decree dated 17 March 1808, teaching 2 approved
baccalaureate exams will end the period. The first university
baccalaureate degree and completed in accordance with section
but also the right of entry to higher education. Besides those
Bachelor of technician other bakaloryalarla equal. Students
entering higher education in accordance with their bakaloryaya turn
to higher education. Bakaloryaya headed by the higher education
Those A.Felsefe Bachelor of Arts:
Learning Literature, Political Science Institutes,
Legal Education, Institutes of Technology.
Bachelor of B.Ekonomi and social sciences have:
Learning Social Sciences, Political Sciences Institute,
Learning in Economic Sciences, University Institutes of
C. Mathematics and Natural Sciences Baccalaureate ones:
Preparatory Science and High Schools.
Science and Learning,
Institutes of Technology,
Learning in Medicine.
D. Mathematics and Natural Sciences Baccalaureate ones:
Learning in Natural Sciences, Pharmacy Learning,
Medical Learning, Institutes of Technology.
E. Bachelor of Agricultural and Technical Sciences have:
Agriculture Schools and Institutes,
Institutes of Technology.
F. Bachelor of Mathematics and Technical Sciences have:
Engineering Schools Foundation Classes,
Science and Learning,
Institutes of Technology.
Social Sciences and Humanities Learning wishing bakaloryalar is
being considered, in law, A, B, C, D, E, Bachelor of areas they
wish to continue. A Bachelor of B areas to the Rector of the school
after the exam is an oral examination and Science-related files
Is a combination of a group of university faculty in France.
Therefore, instead of some other faculties within the sciences
faculties have evolved independently. For example, Economics,
Faculty of Law, Humanities, Social Sciences have developed within.
Higher education in France, together with the university
encompasses high schools. Renowned organizations engaged in high
level science colleges.
France is divided into 25 academic area. This academy regions are
60 universities, 13 per cent are in Paris. Also overseas
territories, Saint-Denis, Gyan, and the university has centers in
Antilles. There are 137 in Paris, if the majority of college.
Objectives are in terms of higher education students
1 Students with the necessary information alone, but also provide
us with information on occupational selection and orientation of
2 And complementary training in order to allow the stabilizer,
social, cultural and sports activities, provide for.
In 1968, France made a reform in higher education. This reform is
based on two principles. These “autonomy” and “participation”
principles. Autonomy, legal, managerial, and financial aspects of
educational innovations introduced. Managerial autonomy, scientific
and cultural studies research and teaching units and structures
itself shows the status and functions of the organization manages a
president elected to council to council units. Autonomy of
educational, scientific and cultural public institutions, research
and teaching units, their teaching activities’ research programs,
education determines the methods of evaluation procedures. Budgets,
by the regulation of the financial autonomy of institutions.
Budgets are adopted after the region and the national council
approvals. “Participation” provides the innovation structures. The
progress of modern society, and the new information it is possible
to obtain almasıyla more responsibility principle that everyone has
the principle of participation. Students, researchers found.
Managers and technical staff participate in management through
elected representatives of the boards. Participate in educational
policy, financial, and management is.
Besides universities, higher education colleges are located in
France. 19 Schools Century of Science and Technology was founded
and developed in parallel with the development of sciences.
Technical sciences universities in the development of science and
has led to the opening of schools were grown separately qualified
personnel. Colleges that are connected to various ministries,
researchers and teachers, trained personnel as well as management
and the military in the rear. Colleges that are connected to
various ministries are as follows:
• The colleges affiliated to the Ministry of Education:
Teacher Training Colleges, Technical Teachers Training College, Art
and Vocational High School.
• National Defence and other ministries on the high schools:
National Management School, the National School of Roads and
Polytechnic School, the National School of Communication,
Sailing School, Commercial Etüdier School
Aviation School, the National School of Agricultural Sciences,
National Maritime College, National Veterinary School,
National Mining School
Day and boarding schools were the main characteristics of high,
methods of use, education, and business fields vary depending on
the duration. Learning time is increased according to the
complexity of the information provided. Generally range from 2 to 5
years learning. Programmed for the areas include general and
specialist disciplines. quite different from the methods used by
universities and different. Training, discussions and conferences
to support teaching activities. Students are ranked according to
their achievements at the end of learning. Placement of students
into work benefits